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Electromagnetism (Essentials) - Class 12th

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An Introduction to Brushless DC Motors | Motor Control, Part 1

From the series: Motor Control

Melda Ulusoy, MathWorks

Learn the fundamentals of brushless DC motors (BLDCs). BLDC motors offer many advantages over brushed DC motors. They have high efficiency and low maintenance and have been commonly used in home appliances, robotics, and the automotive industry.

You’ll learn:

  • The inner workings of BLDCs
  • How you can simulate a BLDC in Simulink ®  using Simscape Electrical™ and investigate the shape of its back-EMF voltage
  • How a BLDC is controlled using six-step commutation (trapezoidal control)
  • How BLDCs and permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are commonly controlled by trapezoidal and field-oriented control, respectively

Check out this video to learn how you can build a model of a BLDC from scratch and simulate its back-EMF voltage using Simscape Electrical.

The model used in this video is available in this GitHub repository .

Published: 2 Aug 2019

In this series, we’re going to talk about brushless DC motors. This video will cover the basics and how these motors work and in the next ones, we’ll discuss more about motor control. 

Everyday devices to more complex machines all make use of brushless dc motors that convert electrical energy into rotational motion. Brushless DC motors, also referred to as BLDCs, offer many advantages over their brushed counterparts. BLDCs provide higher efficiency and require lower maintenance and that’s why they’ve replaced brushed motors in many applications in the past few decades. 

Both types of motors operate based on a similar principle, in which the rotational motion is generated through the attraction and repulsion of magnetic poles of permanent and electromagnets. However, the way these motors are controlled is very different. BLDCs require a complex controller to convert DC power to three-phase voltages, whereas a brushed motor can be easily controlled by a DC voltage. 

Here, we’ll show you a simplistic animation of a brushed DC motor. By passing a DC current through the coil windings, we generate an electromagnet with these poles. These poles then interact with the poles of the permanent magnet and make the rotor spin. Note that after every half turn of the rotor, to keep the rotor spinning, we need to flip the poles of the electromagnet, which is done by switching the polarity of the current in the coil windings. This switching of phases is called commutation. In brushed motors, the commutation occurs mechanically where the brushes come in contact with the commutator of the rotor as the motor is spinning. Due to this physical contact, brushes wear out over time, affecting the motor performance.   

BLDCs overcome the shortcomings of brushed motors by replacing mechanical commutation with electronically driven commutation. To better understand this, let’s look at the BLDC motor structure.

You can think of a BLDC almost as a flipped version of a brushed motor, because the permanent magnets now become the rotor, whereas the coil windings become the stator. There are motors with different magnet arrangements where the stator may have different number of windings and the rotor may have multiple pole pairs. Besides the varying configurations, you may also come across similar structured motors, the permanent magnet synchronous machines, or PMSMs. 

BLDCs and PMSMs are defined as synchronous motors with permanent magnets in their rotors. Their key differentiator is the shape of their back-EMF voltages. Motors act as a generator when they are rotating. This means that a back-EMF voltage is induced in the stators, which opposes the driving voltage of the motor. Back-EMF is an important characteristic of a motor as by looking at its shape, we can tell what type of motor we have and it also dictates the type of the control algorithm we need to use to control our motor. BLDCs have a trapezoidal shape and are commonly controlled by trapezoidal control. But PMSMs are controlled by field-oriented control because they exhibit a sinusoidal back-EMF. Sometimes PMSM and BLDC motors are used interchangeably among the motor control community which may cause confusion about their back-EMF profiles. But in this video series, we will refer to motors with trapezoidal back-EMF as BLDCs and motors with sinusoidal back-EMF as PMSMs.

An easy way to observe the back-EMF shape is to use simulation. We can simulate a one pole-pair BLDC with open-circuit terminals. This means none of the coils is driven. But we can apply some torque to rotate the rotor so it acts like a generator and then measure the voltage at phase A, which will give us the phase A back-EMF. As you see on this scope, the back-EMF of the BLDC motor has a trapezoidal shape, which includes regions where the voltage remains flat. This tells us we can control this motor using DC voltage.  

Next, we’ll talk about the inner workings of the motor. For that we’ll use a simple configuration where the rotor only consists of a single pole pair and the stator consists of three coils spaced at 120 degrees. Coils can be energized by passing a current through them, which we’ll refer to as phases A, B, and C. The north pole of the rotor is shown with red, whereas blue represents the south pole. 

Currently, none of the coils is energized and the rotor is stationary. Applying voltage across two phases, A and C generates a combined magnetic field along the dashed line. As a result of this, the rotor now starts to rotate to align itself with the stator magnetic field as seen in this animation. 

There are six possible ways of energizing coil pairs. By commutating two phases at a time, we can make the stator magnetic field rotate, which will cause the rotor to turn and end up in the positions shown in the animation. The rotor angle is measured with respect to the horizontal axis and there are six different rotor alignments, each 60 degrees apart from each other. What this means is, if we can commutate the correct phases every 60 degrees, we can make the motor spin. And this is called six-step commutation, or trapezoidal control. Note that with more pole pairs, the commutation occurs more frequently. To properly commutate the motor at the right times with the correct phases, we need to know the rotor position, which is usually measured by using hall sensors. 

Let’s discuss how the poles interact with each other. Here, the arrows represent the relative magnetic forces and the arrow thickness indicates the field strength. These two poles of the same kind repel each other, making the rotor turn counterclockwise. At the same time, the opposite poles attract each other and the rotor keeps on turning in the same direction. Once it completes 60 degrees of rotation, the next commutation occurs. Let’s also show the stator magnetic field we discussed earlier on the animation. As you can see, the commutation occurs in such a way that the rotor never aligns with the stator magnetic field but is always chasing it.  

Here are the two facts that can explain this behavior. First, when the rotor and stator magnetic fields align perfectly, the motor creates zero torque. So we never let them align. Second, maximum torque occurs when the fields are at 90 degrees to each other. So the goal is to bring this angle close to 90 degrees. However, in BLDC motors, we never achieve 90 degrees with six-step commutation but the angle fluctuates within some range. And this is due to the simple nature of the trapezoidal control. But more advanced techniques such as field-oriented control, commonly used to control PMSMs as we discussed before, allows to generate a larger torque by achieving 90 degrees between the stator and rotor magnetic fields.

To control the phases for the six-step commutation, a three-phase inverter is used to convert the DC power into three phase currents, which are shown on the animation with red and blue. To supply positive current to one of the phases, the switch connected to that phase at the high side needs to be turned on. And for negative current, the low side switch needs to be on. A constant voltage gets converted by the three-phase inverter to keep the motor at a constant speed. But to control the motor at varying speeds, we need to be able to adjust the applied voltage. One way of doing this is to use PWM. But we’ll talk about this in more detail in the next videos. For more information on BLDC motors, don’t forget to check out the links below this video.

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Electric Motor animated (DC motor explained) 3D Model

Animated web version is here: https://sisu.ut.ee/sites/default/files/blender/files/electric_motor_3d_3.html

CC Attribution Creative Commons Attribution

The National MagLab is funded by the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida.

How DC Motors Work

DC motors make things like appliances and power tools work by converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. Find out how.

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Electric motors

by Chris Woodford . Last updated: December 10, 2023 .

F lick a switch and get instant power—how our ancestors would have loved electric motors! You can find them in everything from electric trains to remote-controlled cars—and you might be surprised how common they are. How many electric motors are there in the room with you right now? There are probably two in your computer for starters, one spinning your hard drive around and another one powering the cooling fan. If you're sitting in a bedroom, you'll find motors in hair dryers and many toys; in the bathroom, they're in extractor fans, and electric shavers; in the kitchen, motors are in just about every appliance from clothes washing machines and dishwashers to coffee grinders, microwaves , and electric can openers. Electric motors have proved themselves to be among the greatest inventions of all time. Let's pull some apart and find out how they work!

Photo: Even small electric motors are surprisingly heavy. That's because they're packed with tightly wound copper and heavy magnets. This is the motor from an old electric lawn mower. The copper-colored thing toward the front of the axle, with slits cut into it, is the commutator that keeps the motor spinning in the same direction (as explained below).

How does electromagnetism make a motor move?

The basic idea of an electric motor is really simple: you put electricity into it at one end and an axle (metal rod) rotates at the other end giving you the power to drive a machine of some kind. How does this work in practice? Exactly how do your convert electricity into movement? To find the answer to that, we have to go back in time almost 200 years.

Suppose you take a length of ordinary wire, make it into a big loop, and lay it between the poles of a powerful, permanent horseshoe magnet . Now if you connect the two ends of the wire to a battery , the wire will jump up briefly. It's amazing when you see this for the first time. It's just like magic! But there's a perfectly scientific explanation. When an electric current starts to creep along a wire, it creates a magnetic field all around it. If you place the wire near a permanent magnet, this temporary magnetic field interacts with the permanent magnet's field. You'll know that two magnets placed near one another either attract or repel. In the same way, the temporary magnetism around the wire attracts or repels the permanent magnetism from the magnet, and that's what causes the wire to jump.

Fleming's Left-Hand Rule

You can figure out the direction in which the wire will jump using a handy mnemonic (memory aid) called Fleming's Left-Hand Rule (sometimes called the Motor Rule).

Hold out the thumb, first finger, and second finger of your left hand so all three are at right angles. If you point the se C ond finger in the direction of the C urrent (which flows from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery), and the F irst finger in the direction of the F ield (which flows from the North to the South pole of the magnet), your thu M b will show the direction in which the wire M oves.

  • F irst finger = F ield
  • Se C ond finger = C urrent
  • Thu M b = M otion

A quick word about current

How an electric motor works—in theory.

The link between electricity, magnetism, and movement was originally discovered in 1820 by French physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1867) and it's the basic science behind an electric motor. But if we want to turn this amazing scientific discovery into a more practical bit of technology to power our electric mowers and toothbrushes , we've got to take it a little bit further. The inventors who did that were Englishmen Michael Faraday (1791–1867) and William Sturgeon (1783–1850) and American Joseph Henry (1797–1878). Here's how they arrived at their brilliant invention.

Suppose we bend our wire into a squarish, U-shaped loop so there are effectively two parallel wires running through the magnetic field. One of them takes the electric current away from us through the wire and the other one brings the current back again. Because the current flows in opposite directions in the wires, Fleming's Left-Hand Rule tells us the two wires will move in opposite directions. In other words, when we switch on the electricity, one of the wires will move upward and the other will move downward.

Photo: My model electric motor has a loop of wire (center) connected to red and black power leads. The current flows counter-clockwise. The loop sits in between the poles of a magnet (N/S), so the field flows from left to right. In this arrangement, Fleming's Left-Hand Rule shows us that the left side of the loop moves upward and the right side moves downward.

Photo: When the loop reached the vertical position, the power leads would need to cross over. The red lead would now be on the left and the black lead on the right.

Photo: If the loop managed to flip over, the power leads would cross over completely. The red lead would now be on the left and the black on the right, so the current would now flow around the loop clockwise.

How an electric motor works—in practice

There are two ways to overcome this problem. One is to use a kind of electric current that periodically reverses direction, which is known as an alternating current (AC) . In the kind of small, battery-powered motors we use around the home, a better solution is to add a component called a commutator to the ends of the coil. (Don't worry about the meaningless technical name: this slightly old-fashioned word "commutation" is a bit like the word "commute". It simply means to change back and forth in the same way that commute means to travel back and forth.) In its simplest form, the commutator is a metal ring divided into two separate halves and its job is to reverse the electric current in the coil each time the coil rotates through half a turn. One end of the coil is attached to each half of the commutator. The electric current from the battery connects to the motor's electric terminals . These feed electric power into the commutator through a pair of loose connectors called brushes , made either from pieces of  graphite (soft carbon similar to pencil "lead") or thin lengths of springy metal, which (as the name suggests) "brush" against the commutator. With the commutator in place, when electricity flows through the circuit, the coil will rotate continually in the same direction.

Artwork: A simplified diagram of the parts in an electric motor. Animation: How it works in practice. Note how the commutator reverses the current each time the coil turns halfway. This means the force on each side of the coil is always pushing in the same direction, which keeps the coil rotating clockwise.

A simple, experimental motor such as this isn't capable of making much power. We can increase the turning force (or torque ) that the motor can create in three ways: either we can have a more powerful permanent magnet, or we can increase the electric current flowing through the wire, or we can make the coil so it has many "turns" (loops) of very thin wire instead of one "turn" of thick wire. In practice, a motor also has the permanent magnet curved in a circular shape so it almost touches the coil of wire that rotates inside it. The closer together the magnet and the coil, the greater the force the motor can produce.

Although we've described a number of different parts, you can think of a motor as having just two essential components:

  • There's a permanent magnet (or magnets) around the edge of the motor case that remains static, so it's called the stator of a motor.
  • Inside the stator, there's the coil, mounted on an axle that spins around at high speed—and this is called the rotor . The rotor also includes the commutator.

Photo: An electrician repairs an electric motor onboard an aircraft carrier. The shiny metal he's using may look like gold, but it's actually copper , a good conductor that is much less expensive. Photo by Jason Jacobowitz courtesy of US Navy and Wikimedia Commons .

Universal motors

Animation: How a universal motor works: The electricity supply powers both the magnetic field and the rotating coil. With a DC supply, a universal motor works just like a conventional DC one, as above. With an AC supply, both the magnetic field and coil current change direction every time the supply current reverses. That means the force on the coil is always pointing the same way.

Other kinds of electric motors

Photo: Electric motors come in all shapes and sizes. This school bus has had its old dirty diesel engine replaced with a large electric motor (white box) to reduce air pollution . Photo by Dennis Schroeder courtesy of NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) .

In simple DC and universal motors, the rotor spins inside the stator. The rotor is a coil connected to the electric power supply and the stator is a permanent magnet or electromagnet. Large AC motors (used in things like factory machines) work in a slightly different way: they pass alternating current through opposing pairs of magnets to create a rotating magnetic field, which "induces" (creates) a magnetic field in the motor's rotor, causing it to spin around. You can read more about this in our article on AC induction motors . If you take one of these induction motors and "unwrap" it, so the stator is effectively laid out into a long continuous track, the rotor can roll along it in a straight line. This ingenious design is known as a linear motor , and you'll find it in such things as factory machines and floating "maglev" (magnetic levitation) railroads.

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  • Electricity for Young Makers: Fun and Easy Do-It-Yourself Projects by Marc de Vinck. Maker Media, 2017. A fun, hands-on introduction to basic electricity projects, including three that involve building electric motors.
  • Electric Mischief: Battery-Powered Gadgets Kids Can Build by Alan Bartholomew. Paw Prints, 2008.

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  • Electric Motors and Drives: Fundamentals, Types and Applications by Austin Hughes and Bill Drury, Newnes (Elsevier), 2019.
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  • Practical Electric Motor Handbook by Irving Gottlieb, Newnes (Elsevier), 1997.
  • 200 Years Ago, Faraday Invented the Electric Motor: After Faraday published his results, his mentor accused him of plagiarism by Allison Marsh. IEEE Spectrum, August 27, 2021. The fascinating story of Faraday's invention—and the fallout it caused.
  • New Electric Motor Could Boost Efficiency of EVs, Scooters, and Wind Turbines by Lawrence Ulrich. IEEE Spectrum, August 19, 2019. High-torque motors are the key to our speedy electric future.
  • How to Print an Electric Motor by Carl Bugeja. IEEE Spectrum, August 24, 2018. Can you "print" a motor in a similar way to how you make a printed circuit board?
  • Shut Up About the Batteries: The Key to a Better Electric Car Is a Lighter Motor by Martin Doppelbauer and Patrick Winzer. IEEE Spectrum, June 22, 2017. German engineers think better motors, rather than better batteries, are the key to tomorrow's all-conquering electric car.
  • Power and Electric Motors by Rhett Allain. Wired, November, 2011. Why do electric motors draw much more power when they're just starting up?
  • How to make the simplest electric motor by Windell Oskay. Evil Mad Scientist, August 7, 2006. Can you really make a motor from a battery, a screw, a magnet, and a strip of wire?
  • Very simple screw 'motor' by Dr Jonathan Hare, Creative Science Centre. Another description of a screw motor.
  • Build a Simple Electric Motor! : Science Buddies, October 16, 2017. A more elaborate motor with a spinning coil.
  • Build a simple DC motor with brushes and commutator (short version) and Build a DC motor step by stop (step-by-step version) by Tim Callinan. How to make a cheap, simple DC commutator motor from household materials for about $5.
  • Electric Motor by Hans E. Nietsche, April 13, 1925. A typical early DC motor designed to be powered by low-voltage batteries.
  • DC Electric Motor by Masayuki Yokoyama et al, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, June 1, 2010. A longer-life motor with an improved design of commutator.
  • High torque DC electric motor with simultaneous battery charging system by Wilson A. Burtis, August 26, 1997. A high-powered motor that can effectively charge an electric vehicle's batteries as it's driving along.

Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2007, 2023. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use .

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: Mechanics with animations and film. An introduction using animations and schematics to explain the physical principles of some of the different types of electric motors, generators, alternators, linear motors and loudspeakers. (separate page).  

The schematics shown here are idealised, to make the principles obvious. For example, this animation has just one loop of wire, no bearings and a very simple geometry. Real motors use the same principles, but their geometry is usually complicated. If you already understand the basic principles of the various types of motors, you may want to go straight to the more complex and subtle cases described in , by Prof John Storey.

A simple DC motor has a coil of wire that can rotate in a magnetic field. The current in the coil is supplied via two brushes that make moving contact with a split ring. The coil lies in a steady magnetic field. The forces exerted on the current-carrying wires create a on the coil.

The force F on a wire of length L carrying a current i in a magnetic field B is iLB times the sine of the angle between B and i, which would be 90 ° if the field were uniformly vertical. The direction of F comes from the right hand rule, as shown here. The two forces shown here are equal and opposite, but they are displaced vertically, so they exert a . (The forces on the other two sides of the coil act along the same line and so exert no torque.)

The coil can also be considered as a magnetic dipole, or a little electromagnet, as indicated by the arrow SN: curl the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the current, and your thumb is the North pole. In the sketch at right, the electromagnet formed by the coil of the rotor is represented as a permanent magnet, and the same torque (North attracts South) is seen to be that acting to align the central magnet. magnetism?)

Note the effect of the on the . When the plane of the rotating coil reaches horizontal, the brushes will break contact (not much is lost, because this is the point of zero torque anyway – the forces act inwards). The angular momentum of the coil carries it past this break point and the current then flows in the opposite direction, which reverses the magnetic dipole. So, after passing the break point, the rotor continues to turn anticlockwise and starts to align in the opposite direction. In the following text, I shall largely use the 'torque on a magnet' picture, but be aware that the use of brushes or of AC current can cause the poles of the electromagnet in question to swap position when the current changes direction.

The torque generated over a cycle varies with the vertical separation of the two forces. It therefore depends on the sine of the angle between the axis of the coil and field. However, because of the split ring, it is always in the same sense. The animation below shows its variation in time, and you can stop it at any stage and check the direction by applying the right hand rule.

Now a DC motor is also a DC generator. Have a look at the next animation. The coil, split ring, brushes and magnet are exactly the same hardware as the motor above, but the coil is being turned, which generates an emf.

If you use mechanical energy to rotate the coil (N turns, area A) at uniform angular velocity ω in the magnetic field , it will produce a sinusoidal emf in the coil. emf (an emf or electromotive force is almost the same thing as a voltage). Let θ be the angle between and the normal to the coil, so the magnetic flux φ is NAB.cos θ. Faraday's law gives: The animation above would be called a DC generator. As in the DC motor, the ends of the coil connect to a split ring, whose two halves are contacted by the brushes. Note that the brushes and split ring 'rectify' the emf produced: the contacts are organised so that the current will always flow in the same direction, because when the coil turns past the dead spot, where the brushes meet the gap in the ring, the connections between the ends of the coil and external terminals are reversed. The emf here (neglecting the dead spot, which conveniently happens at zero volts) is |NBA ω sin ωt|, as sketched.

If we want AC, we don't need recification, so we don't need split rings. ( )

In the next animation, the two brushes contact two continuous rings, so the two external terminals are always connected to the same ends of the coil. The result is the unrectified, sinusoidal emf given by NBAω sin ωt, which is shown in the next animation.

This is an AC generator. The advantages of are compared in a section below. We saw above that a DC motor is also a DC generator. Similarly, an alternator is also an AC motor. However, it is a rather inflexible one. (See for more details.)

Now, as the first two animations show, DC motors and generators may be the same thing. For example, the motors of trains become generators when the train is slowing down: they convert kinetic energy into electrical energy and put power back into the grid. Recently, a few manufacturers have begun making motor cars rationally. In such cars, the electric motors used to drive the car are also used to charge the batteries when the car is stopped - it is called regenerative braking.

So here is an interesting corollary. . This is true, in a sense, even when it functions as a motor. The emf that a motor generates is called the . The back emf increases with the speed, because of Faraday's law. So, if the motor has no load, it turns very quickly and speeds up until the back emf, plus the voltage drop due to losses, equal the supply voltage. The back emf can be thought of as a 'regulator': it stops the motor turning infinitely quickly (thereby saving physicists some embarrassment). When the motor is loaded, then the phase of the voltage becomes closer to that of the current (it starts to look resistive) and this apparent resistance gives a voltage. So the back emf required is smaller, and the motor turns more slowly. (To add the back emf, which is inductive, to the resistive component, you need to add voltages that are out of phase. See .)

In practice, (and unlike the diagrams we have drawn), generators and DC motors often have a high permeability core inside the coil, so that large magnetic fields are produced by modest currents. This is shown at left in the figure below in which the (the magnets which are stat-ionary) are permanent magnets.

The stator magnets, too, could be made as electromagnets, as is shown above at right. The two stators are wound in the same direction so as to give a field in the same direction and the rotor has a field which reverses twice per cycle because it is connected to brushes, which are omitted here. One advantage of having wound stators in a motor is that one can make a motor that runs on AC or DC, a so called . When you drive such a motor with AC, the current in the coil changes twice in each cycle (in addition to changes from the brushes), but the polarity of the stators changes at the same time, so these changes cancel out. (Unfortunatly, however, there are still brushes, even though I've hidden them in this sketch.) For advantages and disadvantages of permanent magnet versus wound stators, see . Also see .

To build this simple but strange motor, you need two fairly strong magnets (rare earth magnets about 10 mm diameter would be fine, as would larger bar magnets), some stiff copper wire (at least 50 cm), two wires with crocodile clips on either end, a six volt lantern battery, two soft drink cans, two blocks of wood, some sticky tape and a sharp nail.

Make the coil out of stiff copper wire, so it doesn't need any external support. Wind 5 to 20 turns in a circle about 20 mm in diameter, and have the two ends point radially outwards in opposite directions. These ends will be both the axle and the contacts. If the wire has lacquer or plastic insulation, strip it off at the ends.

(one that is also much simpler to understand!) is the .

With AC currents, we can reverse field directions without having to use brushes. This is good news, because we can avoid the arcing, the ozone production and the ohmic loss of energy that brushes can entail. Further, because brushes make contact between moving surfaces, they wear out.

The first thing to do in an AC motor is to create a rotating field. 'Ordinary' AC from a 2 or 3 pin socket is single phase AC--it has a single sinusoidal potential difference generated between only two wires--the active and neutral. (Note that the Earth wire doesn't carry a current except in the event of electrical faults.) With single phase AC, one can produce a rotating field by generating two currents that are out of phase using for example a capacitor. In the example shown, the two currents are 90° out of phase, so the vertical component of the magnetic field is sinusoidal, while the horizontal is cosusoidal, as shown. This gives a field rotating counterclockwise.

(* I've been asked to explain this: from simple , neither coils nor capacitors have the voltage in phase with the current. In a capacitor, the voltage is a maximum when the charge has finished flowing onto the capacitor, and is about to start flowing off. Thus the voltage is behind the current. In a purely inductive coil, the voltage drop is greatest when the current is changing most rapidly, which is also when the current is zero. The voltage (drop) is ahead of the current. In motor coils, the phase angle is rather less than 90¡, because electrical energy is being converted to mechanical energy.)


In this animation, the graphs show the variation in time of the currents in the vertical and horizontal coils. The plot of the field components B and B shows that the vector sum of these two fields is a rotating field. The main picture shows the rotating field. It also shows the polarity of the magnets: as above, blue represents a North pole and red a South pole.

If we put a permanent magnet in this area of rotating field, or if we put in a coil whose current always runs in the same direction, then this becomes a . Under a wide range of conditions, the motor will turn at the speed of the magnetic field. If we have a lot of stators, instead of just the two pairs shown here, then we could consider it as a stepper motor: each pulse moves the rotor on to the next pair of actuated poles. Please remember my warning about the idealised geometry: real stepper motors have dozens of poles and quite complicated geometries!


Now, since we have a time varying magnetic field, we can use the induced emf in a coil – or even just the eddy currents in a conductor – to make the rotor a magnet. That's right, once you have a rotating magnetic field, you can just put in a conductor and it turns. This gives several of the : no brushes or commutator means easier manufacture, no wear, no sparks, no ozone production and none of the energy loss associated with them. Below left is a schematic of an induction motor. (For photos of real induction motors and more details, see .)


The animation at right represents a . The squirrel cage has (in this simplified geometry, anyhow!) two circular conductors joined by several straight bars. Any two bars and the arcs that join them form a coil – as indicated by the blue dashes in the animation. (Only two of the many possible circuits have been shown, for simplicity.)

This schematic suggests why they might be called squirrel cage motors. The reality is different: for photos and more details, see . The problem with the induction and squirrel cage motors shown in this animation is that capacitors of high value and high voltage rating are expensive. One solution is the 'shaded pole' motor, but its rotating field has some directions where the torque is small, and it has a tendency to run backwards under some conditions. The neatest way to avoid this is to use multiple phase motors. Single phase is used in domestic applications for low power applications but it has some drawbacks. One is that it turns off 100 times per second (you don't notice that the fluorescent lights flicker at this speed because your eyes are too slow: even 25 pictures per second on the TV is fast enough to give the illusion of continuous motion.) The second is that it makes it awkward to produce rotating magnetic fields. For this reason, some high power (several kW) domestic devices may require three phase installation. Industrial applications use three phase extensively, and the three phase induction motor is a standard workhorse for high power applications. The three wires (not counting earth) carry three possible potential differences which are out of phase with each other by 120 °, as shown in the animation below. Thus three stators give a smoothly rotating field. (See for more about three phase supply.)


If one puts a permanent magnet in such a set of stators, it becomes a . The animation shows a squirrel cage, in which for simplicity only one of the many induced current loops is shown. With no mechanical load, it is turning virtually in phase with the rotating field. The rotor need not be a squirrel cage: in fact any conductor that will carry eddy currents will rotate, tending to follow the rotating field. This arrangement can give an capable of high efficiency, high power and high torques over a range of rotation rates.

A set of coils can be used to create a magnetic field that translates, rather than rotates. The pair of coils in the animation below are pulsed on, from left to right, so the region of magnetic field moves from left to right. A permanent or electromagnet will tend to follow the field. So would a simple slab of conducting material, because the eddy currents induced in it (not shown) comprise an electromagnet. Alternatively, we could say that, from Faraday's law, an emf in the metal slab is always induced so as to oppose any change in magnetic flux, and the forces on the currents driven by this emf keep the flux in the slab nearly constant. (Eddy currents not shown in this animation.)

Alternatively, we could have sets of powered coils in the moving part, and induce eddy currents in the rail. Either case gives us a linear motor, which would be useful for say maglev trains. (In the animation, the geometry is, as usual on this site, highly idealised, and only one eddy current is shown.)

AC motors are used for high power applications whenever it is possible. Three phase AC induction motors are widely used for high power applications, including heavy industry. However, such motors are unsuitable if multiphase is unavailable, or difficult to deliver. Electric trains are an example: it is easier to build power lines and pantographs if one only needs one active conductor, so this usually carries DC, and many train motors are DC. However, because of the disadvantages of DC for high power, more modern trains convert the DC into AC and then run three phase motors.

Single phase induction motors have problems for applications combining high power and flexible load conditions. The problem lies in producing the rotating field. A capacitor could be used to put the current in one set of coils ahead, but high value, high voltage capacitors are expensive. Shaded poles are used instead, but the torque is small at some angles. If one cannot produce a smoothly rotating field, and if the load 'slips' well behind the field, then the torque falls or even reverses.

Power tools and some appliances use brushed AC motors. Brushes introduce losses (plus arcing and ozone production). The stator polarities are reversed 100 times a second. Even if the core material is chosen to minimise hysteresis losses ('iron losses'), this contributes to inefficiency, and to the possibility of overheating. These motors may be called because they can operate on DC. This solution is cheap, but crude and inefficient. For relatively low power applications like power tools, the inefficiency is usually not economically important.

If only single phase AC is available, one may rectify the AC and use a DC motor. High current rectifiers used to be expensive, but are becoming less expensive and more widely used. If you are confident you understand the principles, it's time to go to by John Storey. Or else continue here to find out about loudspeakers and transformers.

A loudspeaker is a linear motor with a small range. It has a single moving coil that is permanently but flexibly wired to the voltage source, so there are no brushes.

Speakers are seen to be linear motors with a modest range - perhaps tens of mm. Similar linear motors, although of course without the paper cone, are often used to move the reading and writing head radially on a disc drive.

The sketches of motors have been schematics to show the principles. Please don't be angry if, when you pull a motor apart, it looks more complicated! (See .) For instance, a typical DC motor is likely to have many separately wound coils to produce smoother torque: there is always one coil for which the sine term is close to unity. This is illustrated below for a motor with wound stators (above) and permanent stators (below).

The photograph shows a transformer designed for demonstration purposes: the primary and secondary coils are clearly separated, and may be removed and replaced by lifting the top section of the core. For our purposes, note that the coil on the left has fewer coils than that at right (the insets show close-ups).

The sketch and circuit show a step-up transformer. To make a step-down transformer, one only has to put the source on the right and the load on the left. ( : for a real transformer, you could only 'plug it in backwards' only after verifying that the voltage rating were appropriate.) So, how does a transformer work?

The core (shaded) has high magnetic permeability, ie a material that forms a magnetic field much more easily than free space does, due to the orientation of atomic dipoles. (In the photograph, the core is laminated soft iron.) The result is that the field is concentrated inside the core, and almost no field lines leave the core. If follows that the magnetic fluxes φ through the primary and secondary are approximately equal, as shown. From Faraday's law, the emf in each turn, whether in the primary or secondary coil, is −dφ/dt. If we neglect resistance and other losses in the transformer, the terminal voltage equals the emf. For the N turns of the primary, this gives = − N .dφ/dt . For the N turns of the secondary, this gives = − N .φ/dt Dividing these equations gives the /V = N /N = r. where r is the turns ratio. What about the current? If we neglect losses in the transformer (see the section below on efficiency), and if we assume that the voltage and current have similar phase relationships in the primary and secondary, then from conservation of energy we may write, in steady state: I = V I ,      whence

I /I = N /N = 1/r. So you don't get something for nothing: if you increase the voltage, you decrease the current by (at least) the same factor. Note that, in the photograph, the coil with more turns has thinner wire, because it is designed to carry less current than that with fewer turns.

In some cases, decreasing the current is the aim of the exercise. In power transmission lines, for example, the power lost in heating the wires due to their non-zero resistance is proportional to the square of the current. So it saves a lot of energy to transmit the electrical power from power station to city at very high voltages so that the currents are only modest.

Finally, and again assuming that the transformer is ideal, let's ask what the resistor in the secondary circuit 'looks like' to the primary circuit. In the primary circuit: = V /r       and       I = I .r      so

V /I = V /r I = R/r . R/r is called the . Provided that the frequency is not too high, and provided that there is a load resistance (conditions usually met in practical transformers), the inductive reactance of the primary is much smaller than this reflected resistance, so the primary circuit behaves as though the source were driving a resistor of value R/r .

In practice, real transformers are less than 100% efficient. .r). For a given material, the resistance of the coils can be reduced by making their cross section large. The resistivity can also be made low by using high purity copper. (See .) Transformers only work on AC, which is one of the great advantages of AC. Transformers allow 240V to be stepped down to convenient levels for digital electronics (only a few volts) or for other low power applications (typically 12V). Transformers step the voltage up for transmission, as mentioned above, and down for safe distribution. Without transformers, the waste of electric power in distribution networks, already high, would be enormous. It is possible to convert voltages in DC, but more complicated than with AC. Further, such conversions are often inefficient and/or expensive. AC has the further advantage that it can be used on AC motors, which are usually preferable to DC motors for high power applications. by John Storey. This site has many photos of real motors and discussions of their complexities, advantages and disadvantages. . This is our new project, which begins with the chapter on oscillations.

. Originally set up for teachers and students using the New South Wales syllabus. . Originally set up for teachers and students using the New South Wales syllabus.

. from the HyperPhysics site at Georgia State. overall, and the motor section is ideal for this purpose. Good use of web graphics. Does DC, AC and induction motors and has extensive links . More good stuff from Georgia State Hyperphysics. Nice graphics, good explanations and links. This also includes enclosures. A site describing a student-built motor. Links to other motors built by the same student and links also to sites about motors. A site that sorts motors from various manufacturers according to specifications input by the user. What is the difference between having permanent magnets and having electromagnets in a DC motor? Does it make it more efficient or more powerful? Or just cheaper?

When I received this question on the , I sent it to who, as well as being a distinguished astronomer, is a builder of electric cars. Here's his answer:

In general, for a small motor it is much cheaper to use permanent magnets. Permanent magnet materials are continuing to improve and have become so inexpensive that even the government will on occasion send you pointless fridge magnets through the post. Permanent magnets are also more efficient, because no power is wasted generating the magnetic field. So why would one ever use a wound-field DC motor? Here's a few reasons: .

/ / 61-2-9385 4954 (UT + 10, +11 Oct-Mar)


Description This is a simulation showing the basic parts of a DC motor. Use the sliders to adjust the battery voltage, the magnetic field strength, and the number of coils in the loop.

Close close

This animation helps you to grasp the direct current electric motor principle (DC motor). No induction process is in action. Only the magnetic force acts upon a current loop.

The sliding brushes permit us to maintain the rotation by fixing the direction of the current under each pole.

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Animated Engines

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Four Stroke Engine

The four stroke engine was first demonstrated by Nikolaus Otto in 1876 1 , hence it is also known as the Otto cycle . The technically correct term is actually four stroke cycle . The four stroke engine is probably the most common engine type nowadays. It powers almost all cars and trucks.

The four strokes of the cycle are intake, compression, power, and exhaust. Each corresponds to one full stroke of the piston; therefore, the complete cycle requires two revolutions of the crankshaft to complete.

During the intake stroke, the piston moves downward, drawing a fresh charge of vaporized fuel/air mixture. The illustrated engine features a poppet intake valve which is drawn open by the vacuum produced by the intake stroke. Some early engines worked this way; however, most modern engines incorporate an extra cam/lifter arrangement as seen on the exhaust valve. The exhaust valve is held shut by a spring (not illustrated here).


As the piston rises, the poppet valve is forced shut by the increased cylinder pressure. Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward, compressing the fuel/air mixture.

At the top of the compression stroke, the spark plug fires, igniting the compressed fuel. As the fuel burns it expands, driving the piston downward.

At the bottom of the power stroke, the exhaust valve is opened by the cam/lifter mechanism. The upward stroke of the piston drives the exhausted fuel out of the cylinder.

Ignition System

This animation also illustrates a simple ignition system using breaker points, coil, condenser, and battery.

A number of visitors have written to point out a problem with the breaker points in my illustration. In this style ignition circuit, the spark plug will fire just as the breaker points open. The illustration appears to have this backwards.

In fact, the illustration is correct; it just moves so fast it’s difficult to see! Here’s a close-up of the frames just at the point the plug fires:

My original intent was to accurately show that the points need to remain closed for only a fraction of a second, called the dwell. By illustrating this, I inadvertently obscured the overall operation of the circuit. Perhaps someday I’ll prepare a more detailed illustration of the ignition system alone.

Larger four stroke engines usually include more than one cylinder, have various arrangements for the camshaft (dual, overhead, etc.), sometimes feature fuel injection, turbochargers, multiple valves, etc. None of these enhancements changes the basic operation of the engine.

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Complete Guide to Motors for your DIY Animatronics & Props

Get started with motorized props i'll show you the most popular motor options available to give your prop, robot or animatronics character realistic movement..

After building static props for years I wanted to make the leap into animatronics – characters that talked, zombies that crawled out of graves and monsters that jumped out at you. I admit that I was intimidated at first because I didn’t know where to start. Aside from the artistic aspects, making animatronics and motorized props requires a variety of disciplines like robotics, mechanical engineering, electrical and computer science. How was I going to learn all this stuff?

Like most DIY prop makers, I learned by doing, failing, and then doing again. Starting with simple mechanisms that were only capable of one movement, I failed my way to success building more articulations and incorporating microcontrollers, lights and sounds. The exciting thing about animatronics is that you don’t have to be an expert to build cool creatures and robots. You already have the most important tools – your imagination and persistence.

If you’re ready to create motorized props, robot or animatronics but don’t know how to choose the right motor, I’ve put together this comprehensive guide to the most popular and affordable options to bring life-like professional movement to your homemade creations!

  • In This Animatronic Motors Tutorial:

Variable Speed Motors

Vibration motors, servo motors, linear actuators, types of motors.

Animatronic prop motors fall into three main categories – electric, pneumatic (air pressure), and hydraulic (fluid pressure). Some are easier to get started with than others but I’ll take you through the most popular motor options geared towards animatronics and motorized prop projects along with the advantages and drawbacks of each one so you can decide what’s best for your next creation.

Electric Motors

Electric motors are the easiest to start with and integrate into your prop. They’re commonly available as fixed speed, variable speed and vibrating.

The deer motor is a fixed speed motor and gets its name from the outdoor motorized holiday deer decor where the deer’s head moves slowly up and down. This is perhaps one of the most popular motors you’ll find in store-bought outdoor props and the easiest motor to begin with because it plugs right into a regular wall outlet. It starts moving the moment you plug it in! Deer motors are among the least expensive options and great for projects that need a slow repetitive movement. It has an arm (called a horn) where you can attach string, a rod, bracket, or even a pulley to create motion like lifting, turning, and up & down. Since deer motors don’t have much torque they’re best suited for lightweight props.

Deer motor used for motorized props and animatronics.

You will also see them called synchronous motors because the rotation of the shaft is synchronized with the frequency of the supply current. Unlike the dedicated deer motors, these will usually come without the plastic housing and horn so you can make attachments directly to the shaft. They’re available at different fixed speeds and frequencies. These don’t come with a power cord pre-attached so you’ll have to wire one yourself to the motor’s leads. You can use wire nuts or quick connectors for a more temporary connection or solder the wires together for something more permanent.

Synchronous motor for motorized props and animatronics projects.

If you only need basic movement for a lightweight prop, check out deer motors or other synchronous motors .

These motors can operate in a range of speeds giving you more control of your prop’s motions. Variable speed motors are an excellent choice for producing more realistic movements that aren’t as predictable as fixed speed motors. The speed of the motor is determined by how much voltage is supplied to it so to set a speed or change the speed at specific intervals you’ll need a motor controller . In addition to a controller, you’ll also have to connect the motor to a power supply. This can either be a battery or power adapter that plugs into the wall.

Variable speed motors to use in motorized props, robots and animatronics projects.

Variable speed motors are available in different sizes, voltages and torque abilities so if you’re just starting out with animatronics it’s easy to get overwhelmed. Of course the more torque you need to move heavier parts of your prop the more expensive the motor. There are also a variety of motor controllers on the market to fit your skill level from coding and uploading complex programs to “plug-and-play” options that allow you to control your motor with a push of a button along with speed adjustment knobs. The last piece of the puzzle is a power supply that matches the voltage of your motor and provides enough current (amps) to run it.

You can pick out each of the three components separately or opt for a kit that includes everything you need – a motor, matching power supply and controller. The most popular of these kits are for 2-speed windshield wiper motors – the same ones used in cars. These prop kits come with the wiper motor, matching power supply and a controller, eliminating a lot of the research and guesswork that comes with picking motorized components and accessories individually.

Windshield wiper motors for motorized props, robots and animatronics.

If you need more torque than a deer or fixed motor can provide, I highly recommend you try a wiper motor first. They’re less expensive than many other motor options and widely available online new or used but you can frequently get an even better deal by visiting your local scrap yard.

As the name implies, vibration motors are great for making props shake, writhe, and wiggle in unpredictable ways to level up the scare factor. They’re commonly used in static props for haunted or horror attractions to complement the more elaborately motorized animatronics. They work best in flexible props that have latex or silicon elements that can move freely for a more realistic shudder-inducing effect. It’s easy to install – just strap or bolt it to any static prop and watch it shake! Most have a power cord already attached so you can plug it into the wall.

Vibration motor for your motorized prop or animatronics project.

If you want to add a shivering or shaking effect to a static prop, try using a vibration motor .

As your motorized props and animatronics projects become more complex, servo motors become an essential component of your design. They’re widely used for eye mechanisms, operating jaws, controlling arms, heads and any movement that requires more precise control, positioning and complex programmable articulations. In order for servos to move from one point to another within that range of motion, the servo controller must send out a precisely calculated signal known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). The width of this signal will determine the exact positioning of the servo within its arc. Generally servo controllers are dedicated pieces of hardware that input signals from components such as a joystick, potentiometer or even sensors and based on those calculations output their own PWM signal; alternatively servo controllers can by bypassed with a microcontroller like Arduino which can directly feed commands to the servo.

motorboat animation

Servos usually operate off a DC voltage which can be provided by either a battery or an AC adapter depending on whether your project is stationary or mobile. When selecting a servo, it’s important to consider the servo’s current draw. A common hobby servo can pull as little as 10mA when unloaded, but servos under load can experience higher current draw – potentially in excess of one Ampere or more. It is essential to check the servo you intend to use and determine whether your power supply can handle this current and will provide the necessary voltage – most servos work with 5V from a microcontroller or battery circuit.

If you need to precisely control the movement of certain aspects of your motorized prop, robot or animatronics project, consider using servos . You’ll also need to power them with batteries or wall adapter as well as control them with an Arduino microcontroller or other servo controller.

Linear actuators are a great solution for applications that require linear motion in a forward and reverse direction. They have an internal motor and worm gear, which converts the motor’s rotational motion into linear motion. This is far more efficient than the circular motion provided by a servo or motor, because it eliminates the need to add any extra linkages. Plus, linear actuators are quieter compared to pneumatics and don’t require the use of other equipment such as valves or compressors.

Linear actuators for motorized props, robots and animatronics projects.

The most effortless way to get your linear actuator up and running is to simply connect it to power. The shaft will extend until it reaches its limit switch. To retract, you simply need to reverse the polarity – an extra step which can become much simpler by adding a double pole, double throw (DPDT) switch inline which with a flick of a switch changes the direction of travel. Taking control further, an external motor controller may be used to manage the linear actuator’s position.

Unlike the other electric motors we’ve covered so far, these are not made for continuous use so be sure you don’t exceed the duty cycle.

Power door lock actuators are a great linear actuator project to get started with, as they offer a very inexpensive way to experiment. Plus, they allow you to visualize how linear actuators can be used in larger and more complex designs. To make operation easy, buying a wireless push button controller is recommended – there are loads of options available online, so pick one that is best for your needs. Generally speaking you can get set up for less than $20 and even though power door locks have minimal torque, they’re great for many lightweight applications.

motorboat animation

If you need linear motion and the movements don’t have to operate continuously, then there are a variety of linear actuators to fit your needs. Standard linear actuators can lift heavier loads but operate more slowly. They’ll also need a controller if you want to program positions. Linear servos have a control board built in so you don’t need an external motor controller. High speed linear actuators can provide similar results to pneumatic systems without all the extra equipment like air hoses or loud compressors and can move heavier loads faster. But you’ll need an external controller if you want to program specific positions and frequency of movements. Don’t forget to try power door locks if you’re just starting out with a lightweight prop and need an inexpensive solution!

Pneumatic Systems

Pneumatic systems are synonymous with jump scare props – a surefire way to startle anyone visiting a haunted house attraction. They run on simple compressed air that when delivered at the right pressure can move entire static props or portions of your animatronics very quickly. That’s why you typically here a hissing sound and a pop when the air cylinder goes off. But they aren’t just for haunted houses. Pneumatic systems are a great choice when you need your motorized prop, robot or animatronics character to make quick movements. For instance, a lot of the movements of the Chuck-E-Cheese and theme park animatronic characters are pneumatic. Linear actuators cannot apply as much force, operate as quickly, or run continuously. If you have the need for a large number of fast moving mechanisms, then a pneumatic system would be a better choice.

motorboat animation

Pneumeatic systems consists of an air compressor , air cylinders , fittings and solenoid valves . Air cylinders work a lot like linear actuators but instead of using a motor to extend a shaft, they rely on air pressure that pushes up against the shaft to move it out quickly. Air cylinders can be single, double and reverse action. Single action cylinders provide power only on the extension stroke. Then an internal spring returns the spring to its original position. Double action cylinders have dual pressure chambers and can provide pneumatic power on both extension and retraction, eliminating the need for a spring. Double action cylinders are the most popular for motorized props and animatronics. Finally, reverse action cylinders only provide power on the retraction stroke. These are not at popular as the other two cylinder types.

Pneumatic fittings allow you to connect air hoses to the compressor and air cylinder and even split the air source into more than one cylinder. Solenoids work like valves that allow you to control the airflow going into an air cylinder. When paired with a controller you can program the bursts of air to create custom timed movements.

If you need more continuous, quick, and responsive movements, then try a pneumatic system with an air compressor, air cylinder and controller to bring static props to life!

Hydraulic Systems

Hydraulic systems are similar to pneumatic ones but instead of air, they operate on fluid – either water or oil. These systems are more expensive than the other options we’ve discussed so far and therefore are usually reserved for professional large-scale animated projects. They can produce far more force for lifting heavy loads than their pneumatic counterparts so they’re usually overkill for DIY and homemade animatronics projects. I’ll cover hydraulic systems as they pertain to prop making and creature design in more detail in a future post.

Get Started with a Single Motion Animatronic

Making your own animated props and characters is a fun and rewarding experience. Start by mastering a single motion and then build on it. Whether you try out some of the motor options I’ve covered here or experiment with your own design ideas, the best way to learn is to get building! Motors are the beating heart of animatronics, robots, and other motorized props, enabling them to move with life-like realism. With deer motors, wiper motors, fixed speed motors, variable speed motors, servos, linear actuators, or pneumatic systems now in your wheelhouse, you’ll be able to pick the best option to bring your ideas to life with professional results!

If you get stuck or need more direction, I invite you to join our Engineering Artists community where you can master vital animatronics and robotics skills to accelerate your growth in less time with real-time interactive courses focused on doing along with a motivating community to keep you on track.

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    How an electric motor works—in practice. There are two ways to overcome this problem. One is to use a kind of electric current that periodically reverses direction, which is known as an alternating current (AC).In the kind of small, battery-powered motors we use around the home, a better solution is to add a component called a commutator to the ends of the coil.

  14. How does a DC motor work (animation of the working principle ...

    This is a 3D animation of how a DC motor works, the video explain everything from the basics to Fleming's left hand rule to the DC motorYour question here --...

  15. Electric motors and generators

    An introduction using animations and schematics to explain the physical principles of some of the different types of electric motors, generators, alternators, linear motors and loudspeakers. Homopolar motors and generators (separate page). The schematics shown here are idealised, to make the principles obvious.

  16. DC Motor

    DC Motor. Description. This is a simulation showing the basic parts of a DC motor. Use the sliders to adjust the battery voltage, the magnetic field strength, and the number of coils in the loop. Click here to donate to oPhysics.com to help keep the site going.

  17. DC motor

    This animation helps you to grasp the direct current electric motor principle (DC motor). No induction process is in action. Only the magnetic force acts upon a current loop. The sliding brushes permit us to maintain the rotation by fixing the direction of the current under each pole. This animation helps you to grasp the direct current ...

  18. schoolphysics ::Welcome::

    The d.c. electric motor The animation shows the working of a d.c electric motor. Notice that as the coil rotates the forces on it remain the same but reverse in direction as the coil rotates and the current direction through the coil changes. The torque on the coil varies, being a maximum when the plane of the coil is in the same direction as ...

  19. Motorica

    Motorica — The Generative AI Mocap Actor. Motion without capture. Craft AAA animation in minutes with our Generative AI mocap actor. No capture. No cleanup. Just animate. Get Started. We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Craft AAA animation in minutes with our Generative AI mocap actor.

  20. How pistons work (3D animation)

    In addition to the structure and principle of operation of the piston, our animated film also shows how the working environment and design of the piston have...

  21. Animated Engines

    The technically correct term is actually four stroke cycle . The four stroke engine is probably the most common engine type nowadays. It powers almost all cars and trucks. The four strokes of the cycle are intake, compression, power, and exhaust. Each corresponds to one full stroke of the piston; therefore, the complete cycle requires two ...

  22. Complete Guide to Motors for your DIY Animatronics & Props

    Deer Motor. The deer motor is a fixed speed motor and gets its name from the outdoor motorized holiday deer decor where the deer's head moves slowly up and down. This is perhaps one of the most popular motors you'll find in store-bought outdoor props and the easiest motor to begin with because it plugs right into a regular wall outlet.

  23. Molecular Motor 4k

    Animation done by MG Lomb Advertising. www.mglomb.comMolecular Motor animation, Walking Protein animation, Kinesin Protein animationThis animation visually d...